5 Majapahit Historical Heritage Sites All Over Indonesia
Majapahit used to be the biggest kingdom in Indonesia ever. The kingdom was first ruled by Raden Wijaya in 1293. Based in East Java, Majapahit spread its power to expand its area. Its area of power included Java Island, Sumatera Island, Kalimantan Island, Malaya Peninsula, East Indonesia, and even some part of the Philippine. With such greatness, the kingdom left some historical heritage sites, especially in Indonesia.
Tikus Temple is the most popular Majapahit historical heritage site. It is located in Temon Village, Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency. It is said that it was buried deep and had become rat’s nest when it was first found. That’s where the name “tikus” came from “Tikus” means rats.
When I first saw the temple, I thought it used to be a bathhouse. Some archeologists, however, had some disagreements on this. Some said that it was a water reservoir for Trowulan people. Others said that it was a place of worship as a small tower laid there. Whatever it is, the existence of the tower itself says that it was built in 13 to 14 centuries.The site opens from 6.30 A.M. to 4.30 P.M.
Pari temple is another popular Majapahit historical heritage site. It is located in Pari Village, Porong Subdistrict, Sidoarjo Regency. It is about 2 km northwest of Lapindo mudflow.
According to the report made by J. Knebel, the building was estimated to be built in 1371 during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. It was built to remember and commemorate a step-brother as well as a friend of Prabu Wijaya’s son. It is said that he and his wife refused to live in Majapahit Palace.
The building was built of square brick stones, like Balinese shrines. Above its entrance, there used to be an old stone. Its architecture was very much similar to Campa culture in Vietnam.
The site opens from 7.00 A.M to 5.00 P.M.
Brahu temple is located in Bejijong Village, Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency. This temple was built by Mpu Sendok as a place of cremating Majapahit kings’ bodies. The name “Brahu” itself was assumed to be derived from “Wanaru” or “Warahu.” The word which means “sacred place” was taken from Alasantan inscription found not far from the temple.
Incorporating Buddhist style, the temple was built of red brick stones. The temple was estimated to be built in the 15th century. It is 22.5 meters long, 18 meters width and 20 meters high. When it was first found, there were a lot of religious ceremonies tools made of metal. There were also statues, pieces of gold jewelry, and others.
When I first visited the temple, it was so beautiful. The contrast between the environment and the temple was crystal clear. I sat on grasses and faced up north, enjoying the majestic temple.
The site opens from 9.00 A.M to 5.00 P.M.
Sukuh temple is located in Berjo Village, Ngargoyoso Subdistrict, Kranganyar Regency, Central Java. It is 36 km from Surakarta and 20 km from Karanganyar. It was estimated that the building was built in 1437.
The temple was found in 1815 by Surakarta resident Johnson under Thomas Stanford Raffles command. Raffles intended to compile some data for his book entitled “The History of Java.” In 1842, Dutch archeologist Van der Vlies observed the temple. The temple was restored in 1928.
Dutch archeologist W.F. Stutterheim argued that the builder was village woodworkers, instead of stonemasons from the palace. The conclusion was made after seeing the humble architectural style of the building.
The site opens from 7.00 A.M. to 5.00 P.M.
Jabung temple is located in Jabung Village, Paiton Subdistrict, Probolinggo Regency. The architecture of the temple used Hindu style, although the appearance is similar to that of Bahal Temple in North Sumatera. It is 13.13 meters long, 9.6 meters width and 16.2 meters high, facing north.
When I first stepped into the temple, I saw two main buildings. It was called Sudut Temple. Those two buildings are different in size, big and small. Red brick stones were the materials used to build the temple. I was shocked knowing that the temple was still in good condition after its restoration in 1983 up to 1987. Besides, seeing the temple that looks like a castle made me realize that Majapahit was a great kingdom.
Those are 5 Majapahit historical heritage sites all over Indonesia. There are still a lot of sites left by the kingdom. However, Majapahit did not leave historical heritage sites, but also the well-known Majapahit military self-defense, Kali Majapahit.
Kali Majapahit Martial Arts
Kali Majapahit is one of the aspects of Sundang Majapahit. Kali Majapahit belongs to the attack aspect. While others are Sundang Gunung (defense), Sundang Laut (conquer), Sundang Angin (infiltration), and Sundang Matahari (protecting king and king’s family). It was introduced by Mahesa Anabrang. This self-defense, which was mostly used during the war was fierce. It can’t be blocked or stopped in the middle of the war. The most feared Ranggalawe was beaten by Mahesa with his body torn apart. Now, Kali Majapahit is popular in the Philippine.